The latest gonostyli was emphasized during the reddish, and can become clearly found in recently mated queens

The latest gonostyli was emphasized during the reddish, and can become clearly found in recently mated queens

Girls genitalia out-of M. fasciculata and you can measures getting mating plug coupling. (A) Virgin females genitalia into the frontal have a look at. (B) Men genitalia from pre-copula men, handling the feminine genitalia. (C–E) Genital product, metasomal sterna S-VIII and you will S-IX. (F) Men genitalia carrying out the fresh new coupling of connect: ventral look at vaginal tablet and you can metasomal sternum S-IX projecting out of the looks of male by a good telescopic path. (G) Male vaginal supplement detached out-of male’s human body, with penis valves caused, gonostyli against the exact opposite condition when considering the initial. (H) Metasomal sterna S-VIII and you may S-IX, in which sternum S-IX takes on its brand new status in the male’s instinct. (I) Mating plug in detail, demonstrating the new lateral compressing of gonocoxites. (J) The newest genital chamber out of an excellent blocked girls: the fresh membranous part that features the fresh mating connect connected.

Regarding low-Melipona variety (F

longipes, S. aff. Postica, and you may P. minima), we seen strong penis valves that have intermediary curvature and you may less spatha ( Figure step 1)paring the general morphology away from cock valves and spatha regarding Yards. fasciculata to another learned species, i found that each other Meters. flavolineata and you may Meters. seminigra features slim dick regulators with low curve. However, Yards. seminigra provides reduced valves than simply Yards. flavolineata, and a well established spatha when compared to another Melipona ( Contour step 1).

Description away from hypothesized plugging tips

The very last standing regarding mating plugs inside mated female matched up the fresh new standing of male’s instinct through the copulation because of “J” movement and position below female’s abdomen ( Figure 4C). In every physogastric queens off M. fasciculata, we seen new mating plug connected to the membranous vaginal purse by the cock valves, towards the spatha skin built for the the feminine ventral piece, placed directly under this new gonopore ( Profile 3J). I propose that new mating connect device is caused in the event that men vaginal tablet is actually irreversibly protruded off male’s human anatomy, which results in altered ranks of your gonostyli, dick regulators, and you can gonocoxites.

The mating collection of Meters. fasciculata, considering a video clip checklist from mating regarding a related varieties. Throughout: (A) male in flight, seeking to status itself over the lady; (B) arranged men, showing pairs regarding legs suitable across the woman’s body; (C) men improving the gut of one’s people; (D) male making the feminine once effective mating, that is, the fresh mating plug attachment. In all bits, men wings is portrayed to help you represent its course while in the mating, according to Second Films S1 .

The latest mating set of Meters. fasciculata, centered on videos listing out of mating regarding an associated varieties. All the way through: (A) male in flight, seeking condition by itself along the ladies; (B) positioned men, appearing pairs regarding ft fitted along the female’s muscles; (C) men raising the instinct of your ladies; (D) men leaving the feminine immediately after winning mating, which is, brand new mating connect attachment. Throughout parts, men wings is depicted so you’re able to show the path through the mating, according to Additional Video clips S1 .

Based on the research ranging from resting condition off vaginal pills and you will brought about condition regarding mating plugs, their functional morphology, plus in videos info on the mating behavior out-of a directly associated species ( Supplementary Video S1 ), we advise that triggering regarding mating plug occurs in 5 hypothetical strategies ( Data step 3 and cuatro):

Just after immobilizing the feminine looks, the male inserts their metasomal sternum S-VIII underneath the girls tergum T-VI, training it ( Shape 4C).

Due to the fact ladies vaginal chamber was exposed ( Shape 3A), the male gonostyli joins the fresh new female’s vaginal part. Immediately after positioning this new sternum S-VIII, the male metasomal sternum S-IX protrudes out of the male’s body with the the woman’s vaginal chamber also the genital product, by the good telescopic course ( Profile 3F). New installation from male read more vaginal capsule toward female vaginal chamber is not followed by the fresh gonostyli, and therefore disperse backwards within the processes, remaining outside the female vaginal chamber ( Shape 3G).

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